Афанасьева, Михеева, 8. Учебник. Unit 5. Упражнения 21-30

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The text was written for people living in the second half of the 19th, and possibly, the beginning of the 20th century. Reasons:
1) Books of etiquette for travellers do not exist any longer as travelling has become very common.
2) Some of the advice sounds very old-fashioned, like having a good breakfast before setting off or demonstrating the manners of a gentleman or lady.
3) Trains are called a new type of trans port and travellers are advised not to fear them. The first trains appeared in England in the middle of the 19th century.
4) The advice to keep a journal sounds strange because of the things recommended for usage: inks, nibs, blotters are not used now.
Probably ‘Practical Advice for the Travelers’ because basically it’s what the text is about. It doesn’t say anything about the pros and cons of travelling, and it’s not a ‘guide book’ which usually gives descriptions of places for the use of visitors.
1. — Geography; 2. — Time; 3. — Climate; 4. — Journal; 5. — Language; 6. — Luggage; 7. — Breakfast; 8. — Dress; 9. — Lost; 10. — Trains; 11. — Money; 12. — Manners; 13. — Packing; 14. — Make-up
1) to be at ease in all circumstances,
2) the spirit of true courtesy,
3) estimated expenses,
4) the route and region of travel,
5) unexpected detentions,
6) at daybreak,
7) receive the respect of others,
8) to make the journey more agreeable,
9) special considerations,
10) ample time,
11) should not be feared,
12) facing the engine,
13) have ‘charge’ of the windows,
14) object to a window being opened,
15) how much the rosy of their cheeks owes to art instead of nature,
16) a nail file,
17) point the hand indicating 4 to the sun,
18) keep a journal,
19) a remembrance
a) 3, 5, 9; b) 1, 4, 7; c) 2, 6, 8, 10
1. You should hurry: the hall is to be ready for the beginning of the sitting.
2. All of you are to stay after classes and complete (finish the work).
3. Tools are to be left here.
4. To be taken with water or fruit juice.
5. The papers (documents) are to be read (out) in the parliament.
6. The Prime Minister is to visit our country in August.
7. The satellite is to be launched at the beginning of summer (in early summer).
8. Not to be heated above 50 degrees.
9. You are to ask your parents to come to the school.
10. This problem is to be solved by the government in the near future.
Need as a modal verb is used in the following sentences: 2, 4, 8, 9.
1. We needn’t buy food today, we’re eating out in a restaurant.
2. Does anyone need a lovely grey kitten?
3. You (we) needn’t hurry, the train leaves (departs) only in three hours. (We have three hours before the train leaves.)
4. I understood that Sam needed my help.
5. We don’t need another actress for this role.
6. We (you) needn’t speak about it again; I remember everything.
7. Do you need any new copies of this text?
8. If we needn’t do lessons today, let’s go to the cinema.
1. needn’t;
2. shouldn’t;
3. shouldn’t;
4. needn’t;
5. needn’t;
6. shouldn’t;
7. shouldn’t;
8. needn’t;
9. needn’t
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