Баранова, 6. Учебник. Module 3a

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1 painted
2 invented
3 designed
4 sketched
5 studied
1 When was he born? (In 1452)
2 Where was he from? (Italy)
3 What other paintings did he paint? (The Last Supper)
4 What sort of machines did he design? (a helicopter, a calculator, a parachute and even robots)
talented (adj): having special natural abilities, like being creative or athletic
intelligent (adj): smart
curious (adj): wanting to learn more
lifetime (n): a period of time that one is alive for
achieve (v): to do sth with success
incredible (adj): amazing, astonishing
survive (v): to remain in existence
consider (v): to think of(sb) as (sth)
engineer (n): sb who designs machines and structures
industry (n): the people and companies involved in producing goods, like steel or cloth
accurate (adj): having no mistakes, exact
canal system (n): a waterway built by people for boats to travel through a city
construct (v): to build
based (on) (pp): modelled after or built according to
detailed (adj): very accurate, precise or thorough
a whole range (phr): a wide variety
ahead of their time (phr): very advanced for the time period
calculator (n): a small device used to make mathematical calculations
parachute (n): a piece of equipment made of thin cloth that people wear to safely jump from planes
material (n): element / thing you need to build, make sth or do an activity
mirror (n): a reflective glass (‘mirror’ writing means it was written backwards and could be read by reflecting it in a mirror)
perfect proportions (phr): accurate / balanced measurements
sculptor (n): sb who makes statues, usually out of clay or stone
philosopher (n): sb who seeks wisdom about or answers to the meaning of things such as life, truth, existence, etc.
geologist (n): sb who studies the Earth’s structure, surface and origins
1 F He learnt things by himself.
2 F Only about 15 survived.
3 NS
4 T
5 N-S
6 F He used ‘mirror’writing.
Da Vinci studied painting in Florence. In 2001, architects in Norway constructed a bridge designed by da Vinci. He had an idea for a robot. His famous drawing of the human body is called Vitruvian Man.
We form the past simple of regular verbs using the main form of the verb and adding the ending -ed.
Text examples: designed, sketched, constructed, learned / learnt, achieved.
When a verb ends in a consonant + e, we just add d.
Text examples: achieved, lived, used.
When a verb ends in a stressed vowel between two consonants, we double the last consonant and add -ed.
Example: stop – stopped
When a verb ends in a vowel +l, we double the -l and add -ed. Example: travel – travelled, marvel – marvelled
When a verb ends in a consonant + y, the verb drops the у and takes -ied. Text example: studied.
To form the negative of the past simple, we use didn’t + the base form of the verb.
Text examples: didn’t finish, didn’t want.
To form questions in the past simple, we use did + subject + the base form of the verb.
1 didn’t paint
2 started
3 died
4 invented
5 didn’t discover
2 Did Leonardo da Vinci sketch plants and animals? Yes, he did.
3 Did Mozart invent an early flying machine? No, he didn’t.
4 Did your parents visit a museum yesterday? Yes, they did. / No, they didn’t.
5 Did you study History last Monday? Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
The achievement that impresses me the most is the Vitruvian Man sketch which presents the perfect proportions of the human body. It is probably the most popular drawing in the world.
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