Фразовые глаголы в английском

Существует особая группа глаголов, состоящих из двух или трех слов. Такие глаголы называются фразовыми (phrasal verbs). Они состоят из:

  • глагола, за которым следует наречие:
    Не sat down.
    Ralph stood on his head and fell over.
    The cold weather set in.
  • глагола, за которым следует предлог:
    She looked after her invalid mother.
    She sailed through her exams.
    The other day I came across a letter from Brunei written in the last year of his life.
  • глагола, за которым следуют наречие и предлог:
    You may come up against unexpected difficulties.
    I look forward to reading it.
    Fame has crept up on her almost by accident.

Соединяя таким образом глагол, наречие и предлог, мы можем расширить обычное значение глагола или создать новое, отличное от его исходного значения. Поэтому не всегда можно угадать новое значение фразового глагола, исходя из его обычного значения и значений наречий или предлогов.

Глаголы, входящие в состав некоторых фразовых глаголов, не могут употребляться как самостоятельные глаголы. Например, есть фразовые глаголы sum up, tamper with, zero in on, но нет глаголов sum, tamper, zero.

Обратите внимание на то, что фразовые глаголы никогда не пишутся в одно слово или через дефис.

Большинство фразовых глаголов состоят из двух слов.

Непереходные фразовые глаголы с наречиями

Некоторые фразовые глаголы употребляются в непере­ходных клауземах. Многие из них состоят из глагола + наречие.

Rosamund went away for a few days.
The boys were fooling around.
She must have dozed off.

Приводим список фразовых глаголов, состоящих из непереходного глагола и наречия:

back away, come up, get along, opt out, spring up, back down, cool off, get by-, own up, stand back, back off, creep in, get up, pass away, stand down, balance onl, crop up, give in, pay up, stand in, barge in, cry off, glaze over, pine away, stand out, bear up, cuddle up, go ahead, play around, start out, boil over, curl up, go along, pop up, stay in, bounce back, cut in, go around, press ahead, stay on, bow down, die away, go away, press on, stay up, bow out, die down, go back, push ahead, steam up, branch out, die out, go down, push on, step aside, break away, dine out, goon, rear up, step back, break out, double back, go out, ride up, step down, butt in, doze off, go under, ring off, step in, camp out, drag on, go up, rise up, stick around, cast about, drop back, grow up, roll about, stock up, catch on, drop by, hang back, roll in, stop by, change down, drop out, hang together, roll over, stop off, change up, ease up, hit out, rot away, stop over, check up, ebb away, hold on, run away, tag along, chip in, end up, land up, run out, tail away, climb down, fade away, lash out, rush in, tail off, close in, fade out, let up, seize up, taper off, cloud over, fall apart, lie back, sell up, tick over, club together, fall away, lie down, set in, touch down, come about, fall back, live in, settle down, tune in, come along, fall behind, look ahead, settle in, wade in, come apart, fall out, look back, settle up, wail about, come away, fall over, look in, shop around, wait up, come hack, fall through, loom up, simmer down, walk out, come down, fight back, make off, sink in, waste away, come forward, fizzle out, meet up, sit around, watch out, come in, flare up, melt away, sit back, wear off, come on, fool around, mount up, sit down, weigh in, come out, force ahead, move off, slip up, come round, get about, move over, speak up, come to, get ahead, nod off, splash out

Непереходные фразовые глаголы с предлогами

Другие непереходные фразовые глаголы состоят из глагола плюс предлог.

Ski trips now account for nearly half of all school visits.
I’m just asking for information.
… the arguments that stem from gossip.

Обратите внимание на то, что субстантивные группы н конце приведенных выше предложений (nearly half of all school visits, information и gossip), являются дополнениями предлогов, а не прямыми дополнениями глагола.

Приводим список фразовых глаголов, состоящих из непереходного глагола плюс предлог:

abide by, draw on, leap at, romp through, account for, drink to, level with, run across, allow for, dwell on, lie behind, run into, answer for, eat into, live for, run to, ask after, embark on, live off, sail through, ask for, enter into, live with, see to, bank on, expand on, look after, seize on, bargain for, fall for, look into, set about, break into, fall into, look to, settle for, break with, fall on, make for, settle on, brood on, feel for, meet with, skate over, bump into, flick through, part with, smile on, burst into, frown upon, pick at, stand for, call for, get at, pick on, stem from, call on, get into, pitch into, stick at, care for, get over, plan for, stick by, come across, go about, plan on, stumble across, come between, go against, play at, stumble on, come by, go for, play on, take after, come for, grow on, poke at, take against, come from, hang onto, pore over, tamper with, come into, head for, provide for, tangle with, come under, hit on, puzzle over, trifle with, come upon, hold with, rattle through, tumble to, count on, jump at, reason with, wade through, cut across, keep to, reckon on, wait on, dawn on, laugh at, reckon with, walk into, deal with, launch into, reckon without, watch for, dispose of, lay into, rise above, worry at

Предлог или наречие

В случае с некоторыми непереходными фразовыми глаголами в качестве второго компонента глагола может выступать предлог, если необходимо упомянуть еще один предмет, вовлеченный в действие, или наречие, если второй предмет, вовлеченный в действие, ясен из контекста.

I could hang around your office.
We’ll have to hang around for a while.
… a dog who had lagged behind the others.
After a while, I see he is deliberately lagging behind.

Ниже приведен список непереходных фразовых гла­голов, у которых вторым компонентом может быть предлог или наречие:

ask around, crowd around, go up, push through, bend over, do without, go without, rallv round, break through, fall behind, hang around, run around, bustle about, fall down, join in, run down, come across, fall off, knock about, run up, come after, gather around, lag behind, scrape through, come along, get in, lean over, see round, come by, get off, lie about, shine through, come down, get on, look round, show through, come in, get round, look through, sit around, come off, go about, lounge about, spill over, come on, go along, move about, stand around, come over, go down, pass by, stop by, come through, go in, pass over, trip over, come up, go round, push by, cross over, go through, push past

Переходные фразовые глаголы

Другая группа фразовых глаголов почти всегда ис­пользуется в переходных клауземах, поскольку используе­мые глаголы требуют прямого дополнения.

I left my pack behind and took only a water bottle.
Morris tracked Hilary down in the bathroom.
She read the poem out quietly.

Приводим список фразовых глаголов, состоящих из переходного глагола + наречие:

add on, give away, point out, spell out, beat up, give back, print out, spin out, blot out, give off, pull apart, stamp out, board up, hammer out, pull down, step up, bring about, hand down, push about, stick down, bring along, hand in, push around, summon up, bring back, hand on, push over, switch on, bring down, hand out, put about, take apart, bring forward, hand over, put across, take away, bring in, bring off, bring out, bring round, bring up, buy out, buy up, call off, call up, carry off, carry out, cast aside, catch out, chase up, chat up, clean out, conjure up, count out, cross off, cross out, cut back, cut down, cut off, cut up, deal out, dig up, do down, do up, drag in, drag out, drag up, dream up, drink in, drive out, drum up, eat away, eat up, explain away, fight off, fill in, fill up, filter out, find out, fix up, follow up, frighten away, gather up, hand round, have on, hire out, hold down, hold up, hunt down, hush up, keep back, kick out, knock down, knock out, knock over, lap up, lay down, lay on, lay out, leave behind, leave out, let down, let in, let off, let out, lift up, live down, melt down, mess up, mix up, nail down, note down, order about, pack off, pass down, pass over, pass round, patch up, pay back, pay out, phase in, phase out, pick off, pick out, piece together, pin down, pin up, play back, play down, plug in, put around, put away, put down, put forward, put off, put on, put out, put through, put together, put up, read out, reason out, reel off, rinse out, rip off, rip up, rope in, rope off, rub in, rub out, rule out, rush through, scale down, screen off, seal off, see off, seek out, sell off, send up, set apart, set aside, set back, set down, shake off, shake up, shoot down, shrug off, shut away, shut in, shut off, shut out, size up, smooth over, snap up, soak up, sort out, sound out, take back, take down, take in, take on, take up, talk over, talk round, tear apart, tear down, tear up, tell apart, tell off, think over, think through, think up, thrash out, throw away, throw off, throw on, throw out, tidy away, tie down, tie up, tip off, tip up, tire out, tone down, top up, track down, trade in, try on, try out, turn down, turn on, use up, wash away, weed out, weigh out, weigh up, whip up, win back, win over, wipe away, wipe out, wipe up

Фразовые глаголы, употребляемые в переходной и непереходной клауземах

Многие фразовые глаголы могут употребляться как в переходных, так и в непереходных клауземах.

Часто это объясняется многозначностью фразовых гла­голов. Например, глагол break in в значении «вторгнуть­ся» – непереходный, но в значении «приучать к новой си­туации» — переходный.

If the door is locked, I will try to break in.
Brody liked to break in his assistants slowly.
A plane took off.
Gretchen took off her coat.
The engine cut out.
She cut out some coloured photographs from a magazine.

Приводим список глаголов, которые могут употреб­ляться как непереходные и как переходные в зависимости от значения:

add up, get down, kick off, put in, sum up, bail out, get in, knock about, roll up, switch off, black out, get out, knock off, run down, take off, break in, get together, lay off, run off, tear off, call in, give up, leave off, run over, throw up, carry on, hang out, look out, set forth, tuck in, clear out, hold off, look up, set off, turn away, cut out, hold out, make out, set out, turn back, draw on, join up, make up, show off, turn in, draw out, keep away, mess about, show up, turn out, draw up, keep down, miss out, split up, turn round, dress up, keep in, pass off, stick out, turn up, drop off, keep off, pass on, stick up, wind down, drop round, keep on, pay off, stow away, wind up, fight back, keep out, pick up, strike out, work out, finish up, keep up, pull in, string along, wrap up,

Существует несколько фразовых глаголов, имеющих только одно значение, но способных употребляться как в переходной, так и непереходной функции. Использование этих глаголов в качестве непереходных возможно потому, что дополнение к ним либо является очевидным, либо уга­дывается в определенном контексте.

It won’t take me a moment to clear away.
Brody began to clear away the soup bowls.

Вот список фразовых глаголов с одним значением, упо­требляемых в качестве как переходных, так и непереходных:

answer back, call back, cover up, open up, wash up, breathe in, clear away, drink up, takeover, breathe out, clear up, help out, tidy away