Unit 42. Passive 1 (is done / was done).

Unit 42- Part A

42.1.jpg

When we use an active verb, we say what the subject does:
    My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1935.
    It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.

When we use a passive verb, we say what happens to the subject:

    This house is quite old. It was built in 1935.
    Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Unit 42- Part B

galka.jpgWhen we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:

    A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. 
(somebody stole it, but we don’t know who)
    Is this room cleaned every day? 
(does somebody clean it? – it’s not important who)

If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by … :

    This house was built by my grandfather.
    Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Unit 42- Part C

galka.jpgThe passive is be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.):
      (be) done    (be) cleaned    (be) damaged    (be) built    (be) seen etc.

Study the active and passive forms of the present simple and past simple:

 
42.2.jpgPresent simple
active:    clean(s) / see(s) etc.

passive: 
am/is/are + cleaned/seen etc.
    Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
    I’m not often invited to parties.
    How is this word pronounced?


Past simple
42.3.jpgactive:    cleaned/saw etc.
passive:  was/were + cleaned/seen etc.

    We were woken up by a loud noise during the night.
    ‘Did you go to the party?’   ‘No, I wasn’t invited.’
    How much money was stolen in the robbery?

Exercises

{slide=1 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form.}flag.jpgComplete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form, present or past:
{tooltip}Key.{end-link}2    is made
3    was damaged
4    were invited
5    are shown
6    are held
7    was written … was translated
8    were overtaken
9    is surrounded{end-tooltip}

{xtypo_rounded3} cause    damage    hold    invite    make     overtake     show    surround     translate     write {/xtypo_rounded3}

1    Many accidents    are caused    by dangerous driving.
2    Cheese _____________ from milk.
3    The roof of the building _____________ in a storm a few days ago.
4    You _____________ to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
5    A cinema is a place where films _____________.
6    In the United States, elections for president _____________ every four years.
7    Originally the book _____________ in Spanish, and a few years ago it _____________ into English.
8    Although we were driving quite fast, we _____________ by a lot of other cars.
9    You can’t see the house from the road. It _____________ by trees.
{/slide} {slide=2 Write questions using the passive.}flag.jpgWrite questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past.
{tooltip}Key.{end-link}2    When was television invented?
3    How are mountains formed?
4    When was Pluto discovered?
5    What is silver used for?{end-tooltip}

1    Ask about glass.  (how / make?)  How is glass made?  
2    Ask about television.  (when / invent?) __________________
3    Ask about mountains.  (how / form?) __________________
4    Ask about Pluto (the planet).  (when / discover?) __________________
5    Ask about silver.  (what/ use for?) __________________ {/slide} {slide=3 Put the verb into the correct form.}flag.jpg Put the verb into the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or passive.
{tooltip}Key.{end-link}3    covers
4    is covered
5    are locked
6    was posted … arrived
7    sank … was rescued
8    died … were brought up
9    grew up
10  was stolen
11  disappeared
12  did Sue resign
13  was Bill sacked
14  is owned
15  called … was injured … wasn’t needed
16  were these photographs taken … Did you take
17  ‘m not bothered / am not bothered{end-tooltip}

1    It’s a big factory. Five hundred people  are employed  (employ) there.
2    Did somebody clean  (somebody / clean) this room yesterday?
3    Water _________________ (cover) most of the earth’s surface.
4    How much of the earth’s surface _________________ (cover) by water?
5    The park gates _________________ (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
6    The letter _________________ (post) a week ago and it _________________ (arrive) yesterday.
7    The boat hit a rock and _________________ (sink) quickly. Fortunately everybody _________________ (rescue).
8    Richard’s parents _________________ (die) when he was very young. He and his sister _________________ (bring up) by their grandparents.
9    I was born in London, but I _________________ (grow up) in Canada.
10  While I was on holiday, my camera _________________ (steal) from my hotel room.
11  While I was on holiday, my camera _________________ (disappear) from my hotel room.
12  Why _________________ (Sue / resign) from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?
13  Why _________________ (Bill / sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
14  The company is not independent. It _________________ (own) by a much larger company.
15  I saw an accident last night. Somebody _________________ (call) an ambulance but nobody _________________ (injure), so the ambulance _________________ (not / need).
16  Where _________________ (these photographs / take)? In London? _________________ (you / take) them, or somebody else?
17  Sometimes it’s quite noisy living here, but it’s not a problem for me – I _________________ (not/ bother) by it. {/slide}{slide=4 Rewrite these sentences.}flag.jpgRewrite these sentences. Instead of using somebody, they, people etc., write a passive sentence.
{tooltip}Key.{end-link}2 All flights were cancelled because of fog.
3 This road isn’t used much.
4 I was accused of stealing money.
5 How are languages learned/learnt?
6 We were warned not to go out alone.{end-tooltip}

1    Somebody cleans the room every day.    The room is cleaned every day.    
2    They cancelled all flights because of fog. All ______________________________
3    People don’t use this road much.  ______________________________
4    Somebody accused me of stealing money.   I ______________________________
5    How do people learn languages?    How ______________________________
6    Somebody warned us not to go out alone. ______________________________ {/slide}

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